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Antigen

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ISBT NO.

001

ABO

ABO [4]
EXP
Anti-A
ISBT No.001.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian42.5%
Asian32.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
A1 & B: 800,000-1,200,000
  • A2: 100,000-400,000
  • A1B: 500,000-900,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The ABO genes code for glycosyltransferase enzymes which result in the addition of specific sugar molecules to a precursor substance known as H substance. An inability to make this precursor substance is known as the 'Bombay' phenotype. The A gene product adds N-Acetyl-Galactosamine which results in the A antigen, and the B gene product adds D-Galactose which results in the B antigen. The O phenotype denotes the absence of the A and B antigens. Individuals with the A2 phenotype lack one of the four A antigen glycolipid structures and type as a weak A.
Anti-B
ISBT No.001.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian14.9%
Asian30.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
A1 & B: 800,000-1,200,000
  • A2: 100,000-400,000
  • A1B: 500,000-900,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The ABO genes code for glycosyltransferase enzymes which result in the addition of specific sugar molecules to a precursor substance known as H substance. An inability to make this precursor substance is known as the 'Bombay' phenotype. The A gene product adds N-Acetyl-Galactosamine which results in the A antigen, and the B gene product adds D-Galactose which results in the B antigen. The O phenotype denotes the absence of the A and B antigens. Individuals with the A2 phenotype lack one of the four A antigen glycolipid structures and type as a weak A.
Anti-A1B
ISBT No.001.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian2.3%
Asian5.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
A1 & B: 800,000-1,200,000
  • A2: 100,000-400,000
  • A1B: 500,000-900,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The ABO genes code for glycosyltransferase enzymes which result in the addition of specific sugar molecules to a precursor substance known as H substance. An inability to make this precursor substance is known as the 'Bombay' phenotype. The A gene product adds N-Acetyl-Galactosamine which results in the A antigen, and the B gene product adds D-Galactose which results in the B antigen. The O phenotype denotes the absence of the A and B antigens. Individuals with the A2 phenotype lack one of the four A antigen glycolipid structures and type as a weak A.
Anti-A1
ISBT No.001.004
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian32.0%
Asian32.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
A1 & B: 800,000-1,200,000
  • A2: 100,000-400,000
  • A1B: 500,000-900,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The ABO genes code for glycosyltransferase enzymes which result in the addition of specific sugar molecules to a precursor substance known as H substance. An inability to make this precursor substance is known as the 'Bombay' phenotype. The A gene product adds N-Acetyl-Galactosamine which results in the A antigen, and the B gene product adds D-Galactose which results in the B antigen. The O phenotype denotes the absence of the A and B antigens. Individuals with the A2 phenotype lack one of the four A antigen glycolipid structures and type as a weak A.
ISBT NO.

017

CH/RG

Chido/Rodgers [9]
EXP
Anti-Ch1
ISBT No.017.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>96.0%
Asian>96.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Not Applicable
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Absent or Weak
Antigen Structure
Complement component C4
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
The carrier molecules C4b and C4a are absorbed onto RBCs: both contain C4d, which is released by proteolysis. Ch and Rg antigens are located in the C4d region of C4b and C4a respectively. Lack of C4b (Ch-) gives increased susceptibility to bacterial meningitis in children.
Anti-Rg1
ISBT No.017.011
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>98.0%
Asian98%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Not Applicable
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Absent or Weak
Antigen Structure
Complement component C4
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
The carrier molecules C4b and C4a are absorbed onto RBCs: both contain C4d, which is released by proteolysis. Ch and Rg antigens are located in the C4d region of C4b and C4a respectively. Lack of C4b (Ch-) gives increased susceptibility to bacterial meningitis in children.
ISBT NO.

015

CO

Colton [4]
EXP
Anti-Coa
ISBT No.015.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian99.8%
Asian99.8%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
120,000-160,000 molecules arranged in tetramers
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
A single polymorphism results in the Coa and Cob antigens. The Co3 antigen is present on all cells except of the null phenotypes, Co(a-b-). The gene encodes the water channel protein, Aquaporin-1 integral protein (AQP1).
Anti-Cob
ISBT No.015.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian8.0%
Asian8.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
120,000-160,000 molecules arranged in tetramers
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
A single polymorphism results in the Coa and Cob antigens. The Co3 antigen is present on all cells except of the null phenotypes, Co(a-b-). The gene encodes the water channel protein, Aquaporin-1 integral protein (AQP1).
ISBT NO.

010

DI

Diego [22]
EXP
Anti-Dia
ISBT No.010.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian0.01%
Asian3.2 to 14.5%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
1,000,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on Band 3 structural membrane protein (CD233). Dia is rare in Caucasians but 3.2-14.5% of Asians are heterozygous. Also seen in increased incidence in some North and South American Indians. Altered form of Band 3 results in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.
Anti-Dib
ISBT No.010.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
1,000,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on Band 3 structural membrane protein (CD233). Dia is rare in Caucasians but 3.2-14.5% of Asians are heterozygous. Also seen in increased incidence in some North and South American Indians. Altered form of Band 3 results in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.
Anti-Wra
ISBT No.010.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<0.1%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
1,000,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on Band 3 structural membrane protein (CD233). Dia is rare in Caucasians but 3.2-14.5% of Asians are heterozygous. Also seen in increased incidence in some North and South American Indians. Altered form of Band 3 results in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.
ISBT NO.

014

DO

Dombrock [8]
EXP
Anti-Doa
ISBT No.014.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian67.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
GPI-linked Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the enzyme, ADP Ribosylation of Target proteins (ART4; CD297). Dombrock antigens are missing from Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) III cells.
Anti-Dob
ISBT No.014.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian82.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
GPI-linked Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the enzyme, ADP Ribosylation of Target proteins (ART4; CD297). Dombrock antigens are missing from Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) III cells.
ISBT NO.

021

CROM

Cromer [18]
EXP
Anti-Cra
ISBT No.021.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
20,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
GPI-linked Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the complement regulatory glycoprotein Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF; CD55).
ISBT NO.

008

FY

Duffy [5]
EXP
Anti-Fya
ISBT No.008.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian67.3%
Asian99.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
6,000-13,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the Duffy chemokine receptor (DARC; CD234). Duffy antigens are also the receptors for the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. Duffy null phenotype, Fy(a-b-) is rare in Caucasians but is the most common phenotype in Africans, due to positive selection for resistance to malaria infection. FY*X allele, present in 1.5-2.5% of Caucasians, can cause a weakened expression of the Fyb antigen.
Anti-Fyb
ISBT No.008.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian80.3%
Asian11.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
6,000-13,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the Duffy chemokine receptor (DARC; CD234). Duffy antigens are also the receptors for the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. Duffy null phenotype, Fy(a-b-) is rare in Caucasians but is the most common phenotype in Africans, due to positive selection for resistance to malaria infection. FY*X allele, present in 1.5-2.5% of Caucasians, can cause a weakened expression of the Fyb antigen.
Anti-Fy3
ISBT No.008.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
6,000-13,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Fy3 is present on all red cells except those of the Fy(a-b-) null phenotype which is commonly seen in Africans. Antigen is located at a non-polymorphic region of the Duffy protein.
ISBT NO.

020

GE

Gerbich [11]
EXP
Anti-Ge2
ISBT No.020.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
135,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on Glycophorins C (CD236R) or D or both (CD236).
ISBT NO.

029

GIL

Gill [1]
EXP
Anti-GIL
ISBT No.029.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
25,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Slightly weaker than Adult Cells
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigen is carried on the aquaglyceroporin protein (AQP3) which transports water, glycerol and non-ionic small molecules. The absence of the AQP3 protein on the RBCs of two unrelated individuals defined the GIL system.
ISBT NO.

028

GLOB

Globoside [1]
EXP
Anti-P
ISBT No.028.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
14,600,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
P antigen is a glycolipid found on all red cells except those of the rare phenotypes p and Pk. The Pk glycolipid (CD77; 003.003) is the substrate for beta-1, 3-N-acetyl-galactosyltransferase, which adds N-acetylgalactosamine, resulting in the P antigen.
ISBT NO.

018

H

Hh [1]
EXP
Anti-H
ISBT No.018.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Group O: 1,700,000
  • Group A, B, AB: 70,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The H gene codes for a Fucosyl-transferase (CD173) that adds Fucose to type 2 precursor substance resulting in H substance. The null phenotype results in the Bombay phenotype.
ISBT NO.

027

I

I [1]
EXP
Anti-I
ISBT No.027.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
500,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Carbohydrate antigen present on the branches of complex type-2 oligosaccharide chains that may also carry ABH antigens. While the I antigen is associated with branching sugar chains the i antigen is associated with linear chains.
ISBT NO.

023

IN

Indian [4]
EXP
Anti-Ina
ISBT No.023.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian0.1%
Asian0.1%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
2,000-5,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Single-Pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the cell adhesion molecule, H-CAM (CD44). Alleles result from single nucleotide polymorphisms. Incidence of 4% in South Asian Indians, 10.6% in Iranians, 11.8% in Arabs.
ISBT NO.

009

JK

Kidd [3]
EXP
Anti-Jka
ISBT No.009.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian76.4%
Asian73.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
14,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the red cell urea transporter (HUT11). These two alleles result from a SNP at amino acid 280 of a 389 amino acid protein. Jk(a-b-) phenotype seen in 0.9% of Polynesians and in many Asian populations. These cells are resistant to lysis with 2M urea.
Anti-Jkb
ISBT No.009.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian73.7%
Asian76.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
14,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the red cell urea transporter (HUT11). These two alleles result from a SNP at amino acid 280 of a 389 amino acid protein. Jk(a-b-) phenotype seen in 0.9% of Polynesians and in many Asian populations. These cells are resistant to lysis with 2M urea.
Anti-Jk3
ISBT No.009.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
14,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigen common to Jka and Jkb located at a non-polymorphic region of the HUT11 protein.
ISBT NO.

026

JMH

John Milton Hagen [6]
EXP
Anti-JMH
ISBT No.026.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
GPI-linked Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Antigen is located on the semaphorin protein (SEMA7A; CD108) which is an adhesion molecule and a receptor for malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.
ISBT NO.

031

FORS

Forssman [1]
EXP
Anti-FORS1
ISBT No.031.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
CauasianRare%
AsianRare%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
No Published Data
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
-
Antigen Comments
Antigen occurs due to an amino acid substitution (Arg296Gln) in alpha-1,3-N-acetylgalactosamine-transferase that activates the enzyme to be able to transfer a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine to globoside. FORS1 glycosphingolipid has similarites to the A blood group antigen, and was previously known as the weak Apae phenotype. It is highly expressed on the red blood cells of lower mammals, but not higher primates. It may be expressed on some types of carcinomas.
ISBT NO.

006

KEL

Kell [35]
EXP
Anti-K
ISBT No.006.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian9.1%
Asian<1.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,500-18,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoprotein with enzyme activity
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on a zinc endopeptidase (CD238). Kell is a system of five allele-pairs (typically showing a high/low frequency pairing), seven high-frequency antigens and three low-frequency antigens. The null phenotype is termed K0 and the antigen Ku is present on all cells except those of the null phenotype. K antigen is rare in Asian populations. Kell system antigens are destroyed by AET, DTT and acid treatment.
Anti-k
ISBT No.006.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian99.6%
Asian>99.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,500-18,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoprotein with enzyme activity
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on a zinc endopeptidase (CD238). Kell is a system of five allele-pairs (typically showing a high/low frequency pairing), seven high-frequency antigens and three low-frequency antigens. The null phenotype is termed K0 and the antigen Ku is present on all cells except those of the null phenotype. K antigen is rare in Asian populations. Kell system antigens are destroyed by AET, DTT and acid treatment.
Anti-Kpa
ISBT No.006.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian2.2%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,500-18,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoprotein with enzyme activity
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on a zinc endopeptidase (CD238). Kell is a system of five allele-pairs (typically showing a high/low frequency pairing), seven high-frequency antigens and three low-frequency antigens. The null phenotype is termed K0 and the antigen Ku is present on all cells except those of the null phenotype. K antigen is rare in Asian populations. Kell system antigens are destroyed by AET, DTT and acid treatment.
Anti-Kpb
ISBT No.006.004
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,500-18,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoprotein with enzyme activity
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on a zinc endopeptidase (CD238). Kell is a system of five allele-pairs (typically showing a high/low frequency pairing), seven high-frequency antigens and three low-frequency antigens. The null phenotype is termed K0 and the antigen Ku is present on all cells except those of the null phenotype. K antigen is rare in Asian populations. Kell system antigens are destroyed by AET, DTT and acid treatment.
Anti-Jsa
ISBT No.006.006
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian0.01%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,500-18,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoprotein with enzyme activity
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on a zinc endopeptidase (CD238). Kell is a system of five allele-pairs (typically showing a high/low frequency pairing), seven high-frequency antigens and three low-frequency antigens. The null phenotype is termed K0 and the antigen Ku is present on all cells except those of the null phenotype. K antigen is rare in Asian populations. Kell system antigens are destroyed by AET, DTT and acid treatment.
Anti-Jsb
ISBT No.006.007
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,500-18,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoprotein with enzyme activity
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on a zinc endopeptidase (CD238). Kell is a system of five allele-pairs (typically showing a high/low frequency pairing), seven high-frequency antigens and three low-frequency antigens. The null phenotype is termed K0 and the antigen Ku is present on all cells except those of the null phenotype. K antigen is rare in Asian populations. Kell system antigens are destroyed by AET, DTT and acid treatment.
ISBT NO.

022

KN

Knops [9]
EXP
Anti-Kna
ISBT No.022.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>98.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
20-1,500
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Reduced
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the complement receptor 1 (CR1; also called C3b/C4bR and CD35). Knops antigens are destroyed by Trypsin.
Anti-McCa
ISBT No.022.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>94.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
20-1,500
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Reduced
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the complement receptor 1 (CR1; also called C3b/C4bR and CD35). Knops antigens are destroyed by Trypsin.
Anti-Yka
ISBT No.022.005
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>92.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
20-1,500
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Reduced
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the complement receptor 1 (CR1; also called C3b/C4bR and CD35). Knops antigens are destroyed by Trypsin.
ISBT NO.

032

JR

Junior [1]
EXP
Anti-Jra
ISBT No.032.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
-
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
-
Antigen Structure
Multi-drug resistance transporter protein (ABCG2)
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
-
Antigen Comments
Antigen is the multi-drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2 (CD338). It is normally expressed on red blood cells. The null phenotype, Jr(a-) is caused by nonsense changes to the ABCG2 gene, reported in individuals of Japanese and Romani gypsy ethnicity.
ISBT NO.

007

LE

Lewis [6]
EXP
Anti-Lea
ISBT No.007.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian22.4%
Asian48.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Absent
Antigen Structure
Glycosphingolipid adsorbed on to RBC
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The Lewis gene (FUT3) codes for a fucosyltransferase. Lewis antigens are located on glycolipids that are adsorbed on to the RBC membrane. They are also expressed as glycoproteins in secretory fluids of individuals with the secretor gene (FUT2) which codes for another fucosyltransferase. Lea antigen is the substrate for the FUT2 fucosyltransferase, which gives rise to the Leb antigen. Lea individuals are FUT2-negative. Leb individuals are FUT2-positive.
Anti-Leb
ISBT No.007.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian72.3%
Asian42.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Absent
Antigen Structure
Glycosphingolipid adsorbed on to RBC
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
The Lewis gene (FUT3) codes for a fucosyltransferase. Lewis antigens are located on glycolipids that are adsorbed on to the RBC membrane. They are also expressed as glycoproteins in secretory fluids of individuals with the secretor gene (FUT2) which codes for another fucosyltransferase. Lea antigen is the substrate for the FUT2 fucosyltransferase, which gives rise to the Leb antigen. Lea individuals are FUT2-negative. Leb individuals are FUT2-positive.
ISBT NO.

005

LU

Lutheran [20]
EXP
Anti-Lua
ISBT No.005.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian7.7%
Asian-%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Homozygous: 1,640-4,070
  • Heterozygous: 850-1,820
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein with 5 disulphide-bonded immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens associated with red cell adhesion molecule (CD239) and result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Very variable in strength and can show heterogeneity between an individuals RBC's.
Anti-Lub
ISBT No.005.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian99.8%
Asian99.8%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Homozygous: 1,640-4,070
  • Heterozygous: 850-1,820
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein with 5 disulphide-bonded immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens associated with red cell adhesion molecule (CD239) and result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Very variable in strength and can show heterogeneity between an individuals RBC's.
ISBT NO.

016

LW

Landsteiner-Wiener [3]
EXP
Anti-LWa
ISBT No.016.005
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
D+ : 4,400
  • D- : 2,835
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein with 2 immunoglobulin
superfamily (IgSF) domains
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the red cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4; CD242). Alleles result from single nucleotide polymorphisms. More strongly expressed on D+ than D- cells.
ISBT NO.

002

MNS

MNS [46]
EXP
Anti-M
ISBT No.002.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian78.5%
Asian66.5%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-Pass Glycoproteins
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Found on Glycophorin A (CD235a). Variations in the amino acids at positions 1 and 5 result in the M and N antigens. Most common phenotype is (M+N+). Glycophorin B (CD235b) has an N-like antigen which may react with some anti-N antibodies.
Anti-N
ISBT No.002.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian70.5%
Asian82.6%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-Pass Glycoproteins
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Found on Glycophorin A (CD235a). Variations in the amino acids at positions 1 and 5 result in the M and N antigens. Most common phenotype is (M+N+). Glycophorin B (CD235b) has an N-like antigen which may react with some anti-N antibodies.
Anti-S
ISBT No.002.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian52.0%
Asian95.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoproteins
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Variable
Antigen Comments
Found on Glycophorin B (CD235b). Variations in the amino acid at position 29 results in the S and s antigens.
Anti-s
ISBT No.002.004
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian90.6%
Asian5.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoproteins
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Variable
Antigen Comments
Found on Glycophorin B (CD235b). Variations in the amino acid at position 29 results in the S and s antigens.
Anti-U
ISBT No.002.005
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.0%
Asian>99.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass Glycoproteins
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Found on Glycophorin B (CD235b) closer to the red cell surface than the S/s antigens. All individuals with Glycophorin B are usually U positive.
Anti-Mia
ISBT No.002.007
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
Asianup to 9.6%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass hybrid Glycoproteins produced following recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
These antigens form part of what was previously known as the Miltenberger subsystem. They are variant Glycophorin antigens resulting from recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes. Frequencies in Asian populations generally range from 3-10%, although one indigenous Taiwanese population has an incidence of 88%. They appear to be strongly immunogenic.
Anti-Vw
ISBT No.002.009
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
Asian<1.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass hybrid Glycoproteins produced following recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
These antigens form part of what was previously known as the Miltenberger subsystem. They are variant Glycophorin antigens resulting from recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes. Frequencies in Asian populations generally range from 3-10%, although one indigenous Taiwanese population has an incidence of 88%. They appear to be strongly immunogenic.
Anti-Mur
ISBT No.002.010
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
Asianup to 9.6%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass hybrid Glycoproteins produced following recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
These antigens form part of what was previously known as the Miltenberger subsystem. They are variant Glycophorin antigens resulting from recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes. Frequencies in Asian populations generally range from 3-10%, although one indigenous Taiwanese population has an incidence of 88%. They appear to be strongly immunogenic.
Anti-Hut
ISBT No.002.019
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
Asian<1.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass hybrid Glycoproteins produced following recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
These antigens form part of what was previously known as the Miltenberger subsystem. They are variant Glycophorin antigens resulting from recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes. Frequencies in Asian populations generally range from 3-10%, although one indigenous Taiwanese population has an incidence of 88%. They appear to be strongly immunogenic.
Anti-Hil
ISBT No.002.020
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
Asianup to 9.6%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass hybrid Glycoproteins produced following recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
These antigens form part of what was previously known as the Miltenberger subsystem. They are variant Glycophorin antigens resulting from recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes. Frequencies in Asian populations generally range from 3-10%, although one indigenous Taiwanese population has an incidence of 88%. They appear to be strongly immunogenic.
Anti-MUT
ISBT No.002.035
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
Asianup to 9.6%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Glycophorin A: 1,000,000
  • Glycophorin B: 170,000-250,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Single-pass hybrid Glycoproteins produced following recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
These antigens form part of what was previously known as the Miltenberger subsystem. They are variant Glycophorin antigens resulting from recombinations of the Glycophorin A and B genes. Frequencies in Asian populations generally range from 3-10%, although one indigenous Taiwanese population has an incidence of 88%. They appear to be strongly immunogenic.
ISBT NO.

024

OK

Ok [3]
EXP
Anti-Oka
ISBT No.024.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
3,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the adhesion molecule, neurothelin (CD147). Alleles result from single nucleotide polymorphisms.
ISBT NO.

003

P1PK

P [3]
EXP
Anti-P1
ISBT No.003.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian74.8%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
500,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
P1 antigen is the product of the A4GALT gene that codes for galactosyltransferases that add a terminal alpha-1, 4-galactose to glycolipid precursors. An alternative transcript of the A4GALT gene codes for the galactosyltransferase responsible for the Pk antigen. P2 phenotype denotes absence of P1 antigen. Variation in the strength of the P1 antigen is inherited. P1PK system antigens are receptors for certain pathogenic bacteria and toxins.
Anti-pk
ISBT No.003.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100 (trace)%
Asian100 (trace)%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Carbohydrate
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Pk antigen (CD77) is formed by the addition of a terminal alpha-1,4-galactose to lactosylceramide by an alternative transcript of the A4GALT gene. Pk glycolipid is the precursor of the P antigen (GLOB blood group, 028.001).
ISBT NO.

025

RAPH

Raph [1]
EXP
Anti-MER2
ISBT No.025.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian92.0%
Asian92.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigen is located on an adhesion molecule, tetraspanin (CD151).
ISBT NO.

004

RH

Rhesus [54]
EXP
Anti-D
ISBT No.004.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian82.4%
Asian99.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common D phenotypes: 10,000-33,000
  • Weak D phenotypes: 200-10,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
D positivity results from inheritance of the D gene. In D negative individuals the D gene is absent or in some individuals due to an inactive mutated D gene. Numerous D variant phenotypes have been described. 99% of Asian and Native American populations are RhD Positive. The D antigen (CD240D) has greater than 20 times the immunogenicity of c which is the next most immunogenic Rh antigen. Rh incompatibility is still the leading cause of HDFN.
Anti-C
ISBT No.004.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian66.5%
Asian93.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The inheritance of the CE gene codes for the presence of the C/c and E/e antigens. These alleles result from single amino acid substitutions within the CE gene. Protein is designated CD240CE.
Anti-E
ISBT No.004.003
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian28.8%
Asian39.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The inheritance of the CE gene codes for the presence of the C/c and E/e antigens. These alleles result from single amino acid substitutions within the CE gene. Protein is designated CD240CE.
Anti-c
ISBT No.004.004
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian82.6%
Asian47.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The inheritance of the CE gene codes for the presence of the C/c and E/e antigens. These alleles result from single amino acid substitutions within the CE gene. Protein is designated CD240CE.
Anti-e
ISBT No.004.005
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian97.6%
Asian96.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The inheritance of the CE gene codes for the presence of the C/c and E/e antigens. These alleles result from single amino acid substitutions within the CE gene. Protein is designated CD240CE.
Anti-f(ce)
ISBT No.004.006
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian66.8%
Asian12.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The f antigen is expressed when c and e antigen expression is inherited in the same haplotype (in cis) eg. R1r but not R1R2.
Anti-Ce
ISBT No.004.007
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian66.5%
Asian92.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The Ce antigen is expressed when C and e antigen expression is inherited in the same haplotype (in cis) eg. R1r but not R2r.
Anti-Cw
ISBT No.004.008
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian2.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
CW gene varies from C gene by 1 amino acid. Virtually all CW positive cells are C positive. Usually results in weakened expression of C.
Anti-V
ISBT No.004.010
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian<1.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The V antigen is seen in 30% of Africans. Combination of c and the weak es antigen.
Anti-G
ISBT No.004.012
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian66.1%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
Common CE gene antigens: 8,500-85,000
(depending on phenotype)
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-Pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No, reactions are usually enhanced post
papain treatment.
Antigen Comments
The G antigen results from a single amino acid substitution at position 103 in the D or CE protein. The G antigen is present whenever C or D is present. Rare individuals who appear to be rr may be G positive (rgr).
ISBT NO.

030

RHAG

Rh-associated
Glycoprotein
[4]
EXP
Anti-Duclos
ISBT No.030.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
-
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
-
Antigen Structure
Rh-associated glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
-
Antigen Comments
The Duclos antigen occurs due to an amino acid substitution Gln106Glu in the second extracellular loop of RhAg (also known as the Rh regulator protein, Rh50 and CD241). RhAg protein is required for the expression of the RhD and RhCE proteins at the RBC membrane. It interacts with CD47, LW (CD242) and glycophorin B (CD235b) to form a multi-complex at the RBC membrane, which is lacking or severely reduced in the Rhnull or Rhmod phenotypes and result in the rare Rh deficiency syndrome.
ISBT NO.

013

SC

Scianna [7]
EXP
Anti-Sc1
ISBT No.013.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
No Published Data
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the red cell adhesion molecule, erythroid membrane associated protein (ERMAP). Alleles result from single nucleotide polymorphisms.
ISBT NO.

019

XK

Kx [1]
EXP
Anti-Kx
ISBT No.019.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian100%
Asian100%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
1,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Multi-pass Protein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
X-linked gene with antigen expressed most strongly on Ko red cells. Is the only antigen in the Kx system. Null phenotype results in the McLeod phenotype which is almost always seen in males.
ISBT NO.

012

XG

Xg [2]
EXP
Anti-Xga
ISBT No.012.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
CauasianFemales 89% Males 66%
AsianFemales 89% Males 66%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
<10,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Antigens are located on the cell adhesion molecule, MIC2 (CD99). Alleles result from single nucleotide polymorphisms. Gene is on X chromosome with no known antithetical antigen.
ISBT NO.

011

YT

Yt [2]
EXP
Anti-Yta
ISBT No.011.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.9%
Asian>99.9%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
7,000-10,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Weak
Antigen Structure
GPI-linked Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Yta and Ytb represent an His353Asp amino acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on red cells. Null phenotype not described.
Anti-Ytb
ISBT No.011.002
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian8.0%
AsianNo Published Data%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
7,000-10,000
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
GPI-linked Glycoprotein
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
Yes
Antigen Comments
Yta and Ytb represent an His353Asp amino acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on red cells. Null phenotype not described.
ISBT NO.

033

LAN

Langereis [1]
EXP
Anti-Lan
ISBT No.033.001
RBC Antigen Frequency (%)
Cauasian>99.0%
Asian>99.0%
Adult Antigen Site No. (per RBC)
-
Antigen Presence on Cord Cells
Strong
Antigen Structure
Porphyrin transporter (ABCB6)
Antigen Destroyed By Papain
No
Antigen Comments
Antigen is the ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCB6, which transports porphyrin and other molecules. It is normally expressed on red blood cells. Several mutations to the gene that result in the null phenotype or weak phenotype (Ln- and Ln+w, respectively) have been described.